In 1994, the Kalkadoon people lodged a native title claim over their country across the Boulia, Mount Isa, McKinlay, Cloncurry and Carpentaria shires in North West Queensland.
Almost two decades later on 12 December 2011, Justice Dowsett of the Federal Court formally recognised the Kalkadoon people as the native title holders of nearly 40,000 square kilometres of land stating that: "the Kalkadoon have continued to observe traditional laws and customs in their relationship to the claim area".
The determination followed long negotiations with land holders and the Queensland government. About 30 landholders in north-west Queensland have entered into Indigenous land use agreements with the Kalkadoon people, which will allow them access to properties for traditional purposes. The Kalkadoon people will now hold exclusive rights to around 4,000 square kilometres of the land, and non-exclusive rights over the remaining land.
Other ILUAs were entered with the State and Xstrata. There was also an ILUA amongst the Kalkadoon People and their various entities which will regulate decision making and governance in relation to their land and cultural affairs.